A thorough review of all medications, over the counter drugs, supplements and herbal remedies is important so that the patient can be advised which medicines to continue and what they should stop taking before surgery.

Abrupt withdrawal of some medications, especially cardiovascular and central nervous drugs, can lead to post-surgical issues.

Many other drugs need to be appropriately stopped - such as herbal medications that can increase bleeding, diuretics in a dehydrated patient, and reduction in opiates to prevent failed spinal fusions.