Nutrition Checklist

Screening for malnutrition

  • Mueller C, Compher C, Ellen D, and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N) Board of Directors. ASPEN Clinical Guidelines: Nutrition Screening, Assessment, and Intervention in Adults. JPEN 2011; 35(1): 16-24.

Risk stratification with albumin

  • Hennessey DB, Burke JP, Ni-Dhonochu T, et al. Preoperative hypoalbuminemia is an independent risk factor for the development of surgical site infection following gastrointestinal surgery: a multi-institutional study. Ann Surg 2010; 252:325-329.

Benefits of Immunonutrition

  • Marimuthu K, Varadhan KK, Ljungqvist O, and Lobo DN. A meta-analysis of the effect of combinations of immune modulating nutrients on outcome in patients undergoing major open gastrointestinal surgery. Ann Surg 2012; 255:1060-1068.

Blood Sugar Control Checklist

  • Joshi GP, Chung F, Vann MA, et al. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia consensus statement on perioperative blood glucose management in diabetic patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. Anesth Analg 2010; 111(6):1378-1387.

Medication Checklist

Bleeding Risks

  • Douketis JD, Spyropoulos AC, Spencer FA, et al. Perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy: Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 2012; 141 (2): e326S-e350S.


  • Kwon S, Thompson R, Florence M, et al. β-blocker continuation after noncardiac surgery: a report from the surgical care and outcomes assessment program. Arch of Surg 2012; 147(5):467-473.

Aspirin Use

  • Gerstein NS, Schulan PM, Gerstein WH, et al. Should more patients continue aspiring therapy perioperatively?: Clinical impact of aspirin withdrawal syndrome. Ann Surg 2012; 255(5):811-819.

Herbal Supplements

  • Qato DM, Alexander GC, Conti RM, et al. Use of prescription and over-the-counter medications and dietary supplements among older adults in the United States. JAMA 2008; 300(24):2867-2878.

 Smoking Cessation Checklist

Smoking and Increased Post-Operative Risks

Smoking and Spine Surgery

  • Pearson A, Lurie J, Tosteson T, Zhao W, Abdu W, Weinstein JN. Who Should Have Surgery for Spinal Stenosis? Treatment Effect Predictors in SPORT. Spine. 2012;37(21):1791–1802.
  • Sandén B, Försth P, Michaëlsson K. Smokers Show Less Improvement Than Nonsmokers Two Years after Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine. 2011;36(13):1059–1064.
  • Andersen T, Christensen FB, Laursen M, Høy K, Hansen ES, Bünger C. Smoking as a predictor of negative outcome in lumbar spinal fusion. Spine. 2001;26(23):2623–2628.

Safety of Smoking in the Preoperative Setting

  • Wong J, Lam DP, Abrishami A, Chan MTV, Chung F. Short-term preoperative smoking cessation and postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can J Anesth/J Can Anesth. 2011;59(3):268–279.
  • Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking Cessation Reduces Postoperative Complications: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. AJM. 2011;124(2):144–154.e8.

Preoperative Smoking Cessation Programs Reduce Post-Operative Complications

  • Lindström D, Azodi OS, Wladis A, et al. Effects of a Perioperative Smoking Cessation Intervention on Postoperative Complications. Annals of Surgery. 2008;2 48(5):739–745.
  • Møller AM, Villebro N, Pedersen T, Tønnesen H. Effect of preoperative smoking intervention on postoperative complications: a randomised clinical trial. Lancet. 2002; 359(9301):114–117.



  • Kwon S, Florence M, Grigas P, et al. Creating a learning healthcare system in surgery: Washington State’s Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP) at 5 years. Surgery 2012; 151(2):146-52.